Stone Surface Finishes

Stone processing

Stones are one of the most widely used and resistant building materials, which have been used in various parts of
the building for reinforcement and decoration since the past. MGT Building stones consist of different categories,
each of which is suitable for a part of the building, such as marble, travertine, granite, onyx, as well as
crystalline marble. The surface of each stone is formed and shaped by different methods, which are called processing
methods in the production process. Stone processing has different steps and their methods are different based on its
application. These steps are from cutting stone in different dimensions to finishing the surface with the help of
devices equipped with steel blades and diamond teeth or discs and wires.

Stone finishing

Stone processing is one of the basic operations in stone preparation. Each stone is used in its own space according
to its color, material and application. In order to use stones in different spaces of the building, it is necessary
to process on their surface according to the space that is going to be used there. Stone finishing is a part of the
stone production process, which has different types. Surface finishing is the technique that brings out the beauty
of the stone. The ornamental function and also some technical characteristics (e.g. its resistance to weather
conditions or its slipperiness) are strongly influenced by the surface finishing applied to the product

  • Polished

This processing method is one of the main and most common methods used in the production of building stones. When
the stone is polished, the appearance of this stone becomes very clear, shiny and bright with a mirror effect.
Stones processed in this way reflect light. The polishing process is by repeated use of abrasive treatments. This
type of polishing is suitable for almost all types of stones. This is very regular, especially in Iranian stone
factories. Polished tiles are used indoors as well as on benches and counters, but are not recommended for outdoor
use as they reduce slip resistance. Stones that are processed in the form of polished are mostly used for use in the
facade of the building as well as the covering of various walls. Processing in the form of polishing plastered with
various materials such as resin and epoxy. This is because they want to increase the strength of the stone and its
quality. An advantage of a polished finish is that it can boost the stone’s overall resistance.

  • Leathered

Another method of processing stone is Leathering method. In this method, leather stone is obtained by a process of
brushing the slab with a range of brushes. In this method, the surface of the stone appear less glossy  and not
shiny, and therefore does not reflect sunlight, the surface on this stone is natural and gives you a leathery
feeling when you touch it, and in fact, leather processing is done on stones whose surface is not uniform and
homogeneous, and the reason is that if the surface on the stone is uniform and smooth, it is not possible to create
low and high during processing. A leather finish is obtained by a process of brushing the slab with a range of
brushes. The result is a slightly undulating surface, very soft, warm and smooth to the touch. Leathering starts
with a honed surface and adds texture. Additionally, it closes the pores of the stone (compared to honing) and
retains the color better than honing. During the leather processing, they do not use ordinary bits, but metal brush
bits are used for this purpose, so that these metal bits separate the weak parts of the stone in the first stage, so
that these parts can be completely removed in the next operation. . In general, it can be said that in leather
processing, the cavities and holes of the surface of the stone are not filled, but it is sanded with the use of
blades with metal bits in such a way that it acquires a velvet-like state and has ridges and depressions.

  • Honed

In Honed processing method, this product has a uniform but dull appearance, and therefore, unlike the polished stone
method, it does not reflect light in this method. In the Honed processing method, similar to the sanding or
polishing method, Saab devices are used, but with the difference that in this method, this operation takes place
until the surface of the stone is dull, not more, because the stones that are produced by the Honed method, as
mentioned, have The surface is opaque.

It should be noted that the travertine stones that are processed by the Honed method have an old and classic
appearance and give your building an interesting appearance. Honed stones have a high resistance to scratches and
wear and are used in the flooring of high-traffic areas, interior and exterior wall coverings, fireplace areas,
edges and around swimming pools, bathroom and kitchen paving, elevator and counter frames. It is suitable for tables

  • Sandblasted

A matte-textured surface finish is produced by small particles (“sand”) striking the stone surface at high
velocities. Using the air pressure of the compressor, it is accelerated, sprayed, and the surface of the stone is
roughened. With this method, the surface of the stone is semi-matte and textured. This method eliminates sawing
marks and gives a smooth surface with small and sometimes almost invisible circular marks. The tile looks a little
scratchy but feels good to the touch. The colors are a bit dull. This type of finish is usually applied to sandstone
and is one of the finishes you can choose for exteriors. This finish can also be found under the name grit blasted
finish. One of the advantages of sandblasting is that it can add a degree of slip resistance to the stone, making it
an ideal finish for external stone paving. Stones such as limestone, marble, and sandstone respond particularly well
to a sandblasted finish.

  • Flamed

This finishing process is often used in external paving since besides giving a pleasing, decorative appearance, it
is also slip resistant.
Flamed- Also known as a thermal finish, another method of processing building stone has a semi rough texture.
Flaming the stone is mostly to remove the polish of the stone surface and thus prevent slipping. A high temperature
torch is used to create this non-slip, coarsely textured finish. In this method, the surface of the stone is burned
with a high-temperature flame. Heat causes the crystals to burst when they are exposed to thermal shock and as a
result, some of the constituent materials of the stone melt and fall, which causes the formation of The surface
becomes rough and heterogeneous on the surface of the stone, and the purpose of this work is to create friction on
the surface of the stone to prevent slipping, and usually the stones produced by this method are used in sloping
spaces, such as staircases and building entrances and around swimming pools.  The resulting surface is rough,
non-slip and generally faded in color, thereby hiding defects and tone variations. Because of oxidation, yellow
materials become orange or red.  It should be mentioned that this finishing process is mainly used on granite and
this processing method is less common in the case of travertine stone because travertine stones are mostly used as
facade stones due to their characteristics and they use less than travertine for indoor and outdoor flooring and

  • Tumbled

Using sand, pebbles and water to tumble the surface of the stone in order to create an aged and an
antique appearance. A tumbled finish can be applied to a variety of stones to give them the impression that they
have been walking on for centuries. This is an aging process similar to the one applied to achieve an antique
finish. In this case, natural stone is introduced in a vibrating drum-like machine with smaller, more resistant
stones that wear the tile completely.  Tumbled finish simulates aging and generates soft surfaces and edges.  A
tumbled finish leaves the edges of stone artfully rough and chipped, creating a weathered, aged look. These stones
are perfect for indoor as well as outdoor use. This is a popular finish because it creates softer surfaces and
rumbled edges. It’s a very aesthetically pleasing choice for external pavers.

  • Brushed

You can use a brushed finish to achieve a distinct textured look. The stone’s texture is soft to the touch, giving
it a casual, worn appearance. In some cases, you can mix a brushed finish with other surface textures for stones. It
will smooth out the nooks and crevices within the stone when paired with a sandblasted or flamed finish. The stone
will feel softer underfoot and appear more antique, as if it has been walked on for centuries. By brushing, the
original surface (honed, sandblasted, flamed or sanded) is made smoother by using abrasive brushes under high
pressure. After this processing, the colours of the natural stone become more vivid once again. The surface looks
slightly rough, depending on the original finish.

  • Bush Hammered

A highly textured finish best used for external applications such as paving or walkways.  This process produces an
irregular, textured surface in stone.  Finishing machines producing this finish use pneumatic hammers to carve the
To achieve a bush hammered finish, a mechanical hammer hits the stone and leaves small indentations on the surface.
The result depends on the size of the hammer and the number of points on the hammer. As a result, the surface of the
stone is smooth with small indentations.
This processing method is very similar to the ax method, with the difference that in the ax method, the surface of
the stone becomes like a nail, but in the Bush Hammer method, needles and circular holes are created on the surface
of the stone. In the Bush Hammer method, Gear tools with a needle head are installed on the sub machines, which
creates the Bush Hammer state with a rotary movement and a check on the surface of the stone, that is, when the
stone becomes a Bush Hammer state, it has a rough surface. , it becomes rough and heterogeneous, and in order to
remove this roughness, in some quarries, a leather hammer is used on the stones of the bush to remove this
roughness. Today, machines are simulating medieval finishing techniques. A final gentle brushing gives it a
time-worn look. You can get excellent material for exterior cladding with this finish type.

  • Split Face

The split face finish is a result of the stone being cut by a guillotine that fractures the face and turns it in to
a rocky finish.

  • Antiqued

An antiqued finish is a process which gives the surface of the stone an aged or weathered look, also called
‘antiquating’. It is an aesthetic result in texture and finish appearance, intended to give the stone surface an
aged, weathering and worn appearance. In general – although there are various alternative means of producing this
finishing, the typical process in antiquing natural stones involves – taking cut tile and or small slabs of the
selected material – which have already been cut to the required dimensions – and passing them through a mechanical
rotating drum, commonly referred to as a tumbler – along with various finishing media – (ie: metal shot, ball
bearings, and in some cases other rounded stones) along with a suitable amount of water, including the finished cut
stones, rotate and tumble together in the drum, washing up into one another, wearing away corners and scraping
surfaces – to create a weathered and time-worn appearance.

  • Sawn

This finish is created by “sawing” the stone with diamond disc teeth. It produces a somewhat rough and irregular
surface with small furrows and undulations. Sawn finish makes the stone lighter and gives it a matte tone. Sawn
finish is available for external paving, steps, pathways, driveways and patios. This surface is a result of sawing,
when the granite, marble, sandstone & Travertine block is sawn into slabs by diamond gang saw or by diamond wire
saw or by block cutter. The sawn surface is generally smooth but probably some “blade / saw markings” can be seen on
the surface of the material.

  • Chiseled

A diamond tooth mill grinder is applied perpendicularly to the surface, to achieve the typical flat profile. The
grooves always run parallel, the distance between them remains constant. A chiseled finish is created, as the name
implies, by breaking a stone with a hammer and chisel. Depending on the type of chisel used and skill level of the
person using it, this can provide a very rough surface or a slightly irregular finish. A chiseled finish can be
applied to any stone.

  • Acid-Washed

acids can be used to simply clean the surface of natural stone or to change its appearance, depending on the type of
acid and the length of its application. Acid wash is an alternative way to achieve antiqued look and it also can
have similar results as the water finishing. The good news is it can be applied retrospectively, meaning that you
can change the look of an already installed countertop, for example.
Epoxy treated – it is a multi-step method that combines several techniques. First the stone is honed so that it has
a smooth surface to which the resin can be applied. Then it is dried in a special oven and the process of applying
resin and drying is done one more time. At the end, the stone is polished. The process improves the visual
characteristics and the resistance of the stone tiles.
Meshed – this is mainly an additional step to make the stone stronger, used mostly for defective marble or stone
slabs. During the epoxy treatment of the stone a thin net of fiberglass or plastic is applied to the back side of
the tile. It has no decorative functions.
Protective treatment – this is not an actual surface finishing, but rather the final step to protect the stone tiles
by applying oil-repellents or anti-graffiti treating substances. In a nutshell, this is the process of protecting
already installed tiles by treating them with the respective substance.

  • Natural

It is the absence of a surface finishing process to leave a stone in the most natural status. The natural finish is
basically the absence of treatment. The stone is sold as extracted from the quarry, once cut into the desired
format. The final look depends entirely on the characteristics of the stone and its exploitation. This finish is
appropriated for cladding and cobblestones.

  • Axiom

axiom processing method is one of the oldest processing methods that has been done for a long time. In this method,
the surface of the stone is scraped using a device called an ax. In this device, hammers with a sharp tip are used
to cut the surface of the stone, and the surface of the stone becomes like a nail. The smooth and polished surface
of the stone is destroyed and it prevents the stone from slipping. Usually, when they want to pave high traffic
areas and also for landscaping and stairs of external and internal spaces, they use ax stones because this increases
friction and prevents the head from falling.
Of course, it should be mentioned that in some facade stones, they create an ax shape because this makes the facade
of the building more beautiful and interesting. Usually in marble and porcelain stones and sometimes in travertine
stones, they create an ax shape.

  • Winded

Winding is one of the most common and widely used methods in the processing of building stones. In this method, in
the factories and quarries, using simple tools such as pen and hammer, stones that are the size of tiles are lifted
and, in this way, wind stones are produced. As we mentioned, small-sized stones are suitable for wind blowing, and
the most common size in this field is 15 x 20 and 15 x 30 cm, although these sizes can be different and variable and
can be made in a square or rectangular shape. The suitable thickness for lifting the stone is usually 3 cm, because
the greater the thickness, the more suitable it is for lifting and as a result, the resistance of the stone
increases. Most of the building stones have the ability to wind, stones such as travertine, marble, porcelain or
crystal and limestone are all of these.
The interesting thing about blown stones is that they usually have a wide variety of colors and you can get this
type of stones in the color of your choice. Winding stones are used in various parts of buildings, and the most
important of them are interior and exterior facades, interior and exterior wall coverings, paving in various places,
elevator frames, entrance door frames, sidewalk paving, and various decorations.
Of course, you should note that you should use limestone wind stones for the interior spaces of the building because
the material of these stones is limestone and they are not resistant to weather conditions, and also try to use
travertine stones for the facade of the building because travertine has a wide range of colors. They are wide, they
are lighter in weight, they have a lot of adhesion, and they are also resistant to weather conditions such as rain,
snow, sunlight, etc. At the same time, it is good to know that although the blown stones have a significant beauty
and originality, they have a cheaper price than other stones processed by other methods, and the reason for this can
be related to the simple processing and small size of these stones.